With a length of 401 km / 250 miles, the Gediz is 2nd longest river in the Aegean region. It originates from western central Anatolia and flows into the Gulf of Izmir near Foca. In the 19C there was a danger of the port of Izmir being blocked by its alluviums which is why another channel was dug in the northern part.
Pergamum was an ancient city founded by colonists on the Aegean coast of Anatolia at the site of the present-day city of Bergama. It was on a tributary of the Bakircay (Caicus River), enclosed by high mountains. Fertile, self-contained and easily defended, it provided the perfect setting for the maintenance of a city state.